[Coggins CR. A minireview of chronic animal inhalation studies with mainstream cigarette smoke. Inhal Toxicol. 2002 Oct;14(10):991-1002.]
This work was performed to verify whether or not the inhalation response to cigarette smoke in animal species for assessing carcinogenic potential in humans reflects the strong epidemiological evidence in human smokers. Significant increases in the numbers of malignant tumors of the respiratory tract were not seen in rats, mice, hamsters, dogs, or nonhuman primates exposed for long periods of time to very high concentrations of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results are clearly at variance with the epidemiological evidence in smokers, and it is difficult to reconcile this major difference between observational studies in humans and controlled laboratory studies.